Access to Mathematics in Web Resources for People with a Visual Impairment

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The authors discuss the issues of representing mathematics in web resources and the approaches available at the time. Two Open University projects are outlined.

This case study was written by Martyn Cooper, Tim Lowe, Mary Taylor. It provides information suitable for Higher Education. It provides information suitable for Assistive Technologist, Disability Practitioner, Lecturer. Further information can be found at:



  • The challenges successfully met were:
  • To meet these challenges the following processes were employed:
    • None
  • The following skills were also built:
    • None

Overview of content

The article contains the following headers:

  • Introduction
    • Needs of People with a Visual Impairment
    • OU Teaching and Learning / Widening Participation Contexts
  • Approaches to Making Mathematics Online Accessible
    • Mathematics as Images with Alt-Texts
    • MathML
      • The MathML Recommendation
      • MathML for Accessibility
    • Practical Issues in Adopting MathML
      • The Browser Issue.
      • Content and/or Presentation Mark-Up
      • MathML to Speech Approaches
    • Maths Braille
    • LaTeX and TeX
    • The Issue of “Chunking”
  • Overview of Two Key OU Projects
    • Maths and Scientific Content in the VLE Project
    • The OpenMark-S Project
  • Reflections on Current Status and Future Directions: "Where Do We Go from Here?"

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